[][src]Module tokio::runtime

The Tokio runtime.

Unlike other Rust programs, asynchronous applications require runtime support. In particular, the following runtime services are necessary:

Tokio's Runtime bundles all of these services as a single type, allowing them to be started, shut down, and configured together. However, most applications won't need to use Runtime directly. Instead, they can use the tokio::main attribute macro, which creates a Runtime under the hood.

Usage

Most applications will use the tokio::main attribute macro.

use tokio::net::TcpListener;
use tokio::prelude::*;

#[tokio::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>> {
    let mut listener = TcpListener::bind("127.0.0.1:8080").await?;

    loop {
        let (mut socket, _) = listener.accept().await?;

        tokio::spawn(async move {
            let mut buf = [0; 1024];

            // In a loop, read data from the socket and write the data back.
            loop {
                let n = match socket.read(&mut buf).await {
                    // socket closed
                    Ok(n) if n == 0 => return,
                    Ok(n) => n,
                    Err(e) => {
                        println!("failed to read from socket; err = {:?}", e);
                        return;
                    }
                };

                // Write the data back
                if let Err(e) = socket.write_all(&buf[0..n]).await {
                    println!("failed to write to socket; err = {:?}", e);
                    return;
                }
            }
        });
    }
}

From within the context of the runtime, additional tasks are spawned using the tokio::spawn function. Futures spawned using this function will be executed on the same thread pool used by the Runtime.

A Runtime instance can also be used directly.

use tokio::net::TcpListener;
use tokio::prelude::*;
use tokio::runtime::Runtime;

fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>> {
    // Create the runtime
    let mut rt = Runtime::new()?;

    // Spawn the root task
    rt.block_on(async {
        let mut listener = TcpListener::bind("127.0.0.1:8080").await?;

        loop {
            let (mut socket, _) = listener.accept().await?;

            tokio::spawn(async move {
                let mut buf = [0; 1024];

                // In a loop, read data from the socket and write the data back.
                loop {
                    let n = match socket.read(&mut buf).await {
                        // socket closed
                        Ok(n) if n == 0 => return,
                        Ok(n) => n,
                        Err(e) => {
                            println!("failed to read from socket; err = {:?}", e);
                            return;
                        }
                    };

                    // Write the data back
                    if let Err(e) = socket.write_all(&buf[0..n]).await {
                        println!("failed to write to socket; err = {:?}", e);
                        return;
                    }
                }
            });
        }
    })
}

Runtime Configurations

Tokio provides multiple task scheding strategies, suitable for different applications. The runtime builder or #[tokio::main] attribute may be used to select which scheduler to use.

Basic Scheduler

The basic scheduler provides a single-threaded future executor. All tasks will be created and executed on the current thread. The basic scheduler requires the rt-core feature flag, and can be selected using the Builder::basic_scheduler method:

use tokio::runtime;

let basic_rt = runtime::Builder::new()
    .basic_scheduler()
    .build()?;

If the rt-core feature is enabled and rt-threaded is not, Runtime::new will return a basic scheduler runtime by default.

Threaded Scheduler

The threaded scheduler executes futures on a thread pool, using a work-stealing strategy. By default, it will start a worker thread for each CPU core available on the system. This tends to be the ideal configurations for most applications. The threaded scheduler requires the rt-threaded feature flag, and can be selected using the Builder::threaded_scheduler method:

use tokio::runtime;

let threaded_rt = runtime::Builder::new()
    .threaded_scheduler()
    .build()?;

If the rt-threaded feature flag is enabled, Runtime::new will return a basic scheduler runtime by default.

Most applications should use the threaded scheduler, except in some niche use-cases, such as when running only a single thread is required.

Resource drivers

When configuring a runtime by hand, no resource drivers are enabled by default. In this case, attempting to use networking types or time types will fail. In order to enable these types, the resource drivers must be enabled. This is done with Builder::enable_io and Builder::enable_time. As a shorthand, Builder::enable_all enables both resource drivers.

Lifetime of spawned threads

The runtime may spawn threads depending on its configuration and usage. The threaded scheduler spawns threads to schedule tasks and calls to spawn_blocking spawn threads to run blocking operations.

While the Runtime is active, threads may shutdown after periods of being idle. Once Runtime is dropped, all runtime threads are forcibly shutdown. Any tasks that have not yet completed will be dropped.

Structs

Builder

Builds Tokio Runtime with custom configuration values.

Handle

Handle to the runtime

Runtime

The Tokio runtime.